This includes measuring winds and waves, sea level change, surface temperatures, soil moisture and snow and ice cover.
Ahead of the Cop26 conference in Glasgow in November, academics at the University of Bristol have called for improved capacity in Earth observation technology and international cooperation between space agencies.
They said the UK was at the forefront of developing technology to turn Earth observation data into useful information but more education and training was needed to maximise its potential.
The data will help countries meet goals to lower greenhouse gas emissions and reduce global warming as agreed in The Paris Agreement in 2015.
Lead author Professor Jonathan Bamber, from the University of Bristol, said: “Earth observation satellites are our eyes on the planet.
‘Without them we would be virtually blind to the magnitude and timing of climate change and to human interference with the fragile ecosystems that we all depend on.’
Co-lead author Professor Paul Bates added: ‘Free-to-use satellite data can transform the ability of countries around the world to manage the threat of climate change, but only if countries like the UK share their expertise and technology.’
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